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Posts tagged as “processes”

Getting Deep About Organizational Systems

Accountability, authority, and responsibility

All of the EEFs and OPAs influencing a project and the extent to which they influence the project is dependent on the organizational systems within the organization. In order to delivery the project successfully within this dependency, the project manager must understand how accountability, authority, and responsibility work within the organization. Without having various competencies to maneuver through the organization smoothly, the project manager will have a difficult time getting things done.

The interaction between management approaches, governance frameworks, and the organization’s structure will all determine what competencies and role someone should have in order to be effective within the organizational systems.

Getting theoretical with systems

I am reminded of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory, which is an elaborate analysis of various systems including organizations. He would compare different structures with varying formality especially to understand each structure’s ability to adapt within the wider system that it exists. Every structure has its own attributes that enable it to understand itself in order to simplify its operations. A structure that becomes simpler allows objects within that structure to operate more effectively and efficiently.

Taking Luhmann’s theory and extending it to project management, depending on the formality of an organization, a project manager will understand the organization in a certain manner to know what they can or cannot do to get the project moving forward. If they are unaware of how the organization works or lack authority, they might not be in a good position to make any difference. Taking Luhmann’s theory even further, philosopher Jiddu Krishnamurti said, “To understand is to transform what is.” Practically speaking, a project manager’s effectiveness within an organization, especially at delivering results in the project they manage, is proof of their ability to understand that organization in order to drive change. Stepping back to Luhmann’s theory, the ability for the project manager to repeatedly effect change within the organization through repeated successful delivery makes that organization and its system much stronger and simpler over time.

Combining the above theories with the project management theory discussed in the PMBOK® Guide, we understand that systems are unique, they are complex and consist of various components and their associated functions, their complexity can be adjusted to enable efficiency, and they are dynamic enough that it is not simple to predict what the consequences would be in changing the system.

This reminds me of an “Internet of Things” (IoT) product I was working on, and I referred to this yaml sample on digital twins. Within a venue there is are spaces, and within a space there are devices, and within a device there are sensors. The sensors may communicate with an IoT hub that is tied to the venue itself, allowing the devices to all interact with one another depending on their attributes. Why is this important in understanding systems?

We can break down any object into smaller objects, and it is the way in which all of these objects and sub-objects interact that will determine the overall output of the highest level object. The same applies to an organization, its systems, the systems’ components, and the components’ functions. By understanding this, an organization can develop and maintain a governance framework that enables the organization and its various systems and sub-systems to operate in a more predictable manner.


Given that an organization and everything within it is managed to some degree, a closer look reveals that the degree and structure of management at each level allows the organization and its participants the ability to influence each other. By understanding people and process, project managers can understand what factors within the organization should be considered as well as the data that is required to be able to understand and maneuver through the organization to deliver change.

Governance is about authority and how it can be exercised within a particular context. An organizational governance framework is the context on how authority is exercised within an organization. A project governance framework is the context on how authority is exercised within a project.

By understanding all the various ways the organization can work through its governance framework, a project manager will be in a position to know how their project will be affected by the way in which the organization sets and achieves objectives, manages risk, and addresses performance. They can in turn determine the best governance framework for their individual project (or, in more complex settings, programs and portfolios).

Because of my interest in jurisprudence and legal practice generally, easily found in other places where I write, I find governance fascinating. While it is not incredibly critical to obtaining the PMP® certification, I am curious to know more about the four governance domains:

  • Alignment,
  • Risk,
  • Performance, and
  • Communications

each domain’s functions of:

  • Oversight,
  • Control,
  • Integration, and
  • Decision Making

and each function’s supporting processes and activities.

A project’s governance will depend on the organization’s structure, and there are many types:

  • Organic or simple – usually a solo entrepreneur getting it all done or with other part-time contributors
  • Functional or centralized – separate departments getting things done
  • Multi-divisional – similar to functional, where each division has its collection of departments mirroring other divisions
  • Matrix (strong, weak, and balanced) – organization with functional and project-level control over project management in various degrees, with a strong matrix being more like a project-oriented organization, and a weak matrix being more like a functional organization
  • Project-oriented – one that is based on projects being delivered
  • Virtual – centralized organization that outsources and networks with various other processes
  • Hybrid – mixtures of other structures
  • PMO – one with a department dedicated to project (or program or portfolio) management that has significant influence on how projects and more complex forms of work are managed; they can be supportive, controlling, or directive

Summary: Revisiting data privacy and political beliefs

As I mentioned earlier, the project manager (in this case) needs to maintain auditable records regarding amounts of personal data processed and how often political beliefs are referenced for the purpose of judging testing results.

Within the organization, which is a hybrid consisting of a functional structure with a PMO there are various systems such as departments within the project manager’s company including the project management office (PMO), legal, IT security, and compliance.

The PMO has its own processes which guide the project manager (PM) in knowing to connect with their legal, security, and compliance counterparts. Legal refers the PM to the organization’s legal knowledge base which informs them about the privacy legislation and how it is incorporated into contracts. Security refers the PM to the project-level controls that should be followed to implement the required auditability. Compliance refers the PM to other guidance and considerations they should follow at an organizational level.

Every three months, the compliance department requires all projects to report their compliance with various rules, policies, and procedures of the organization, and the PM will provide a report to this effect. At the organizational governance level in this example, the compliance department has the authority to compel the PM to provide those reports, and the PM lacks the authority to decline the compliance team’s request. As a result, the PM has set up their project governance framework to ensure all report details are regularly collated and generated into a report that can be smoothly sent to the compliance team.

Within the project itself, because of how it deals with personal data, the project governance framework also explains how change requests to the system in relation to personal data should be reviewed and approved. This was a recommendation provided by the legal team and turned into policy detail by the security team, which the PM has enshrined into the project’s management.

The story above briefly expresses the PM’s influence over both the organization and the project they manage based on how they work with the relevant OPAs and EFFs in the context of the organization and its systems.

Image of Niklas Luhmann by Sonntag under license.

EEFs and OPAs – What are Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process Assets?

Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) are the policies, rules, and other conditions that must be adhered to in the process of carrying out certain activities, and in the context of project management, EEFs need to be accounted for when conducting any project activities.

Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) are the resources a project manager can make use of in projects such as historical information, templates, and other organizational knowledge that all may assist in the progression of the project.

Organizational Systems determine how the project life cycle might work due to the structure of the organization managing the project.

All three of these items are covered in Chapter 2 of the PMBOK® Guide, Sixth Edition.

Data privacy and political beliefs: An example

Together, EEFs and OPAs can determine how the project will be managed. If EEFs restrict the project manager from working with data in a certain way – for example the handling of personal data – the project manager may have additional layers of activity that should be performed to work with that data. An example might be that beyond what any data privacy legislation may require (which are also EEFs), project managers need to maintain auditable records on the amounts of personal data used in testing the software and how often sensitive data such as political opinions are used on the basis of accepting or rejecting test results.

The organization might have a policy relating to discrimination on the grounds of political beliefs, and though it might not relate to employees, as a matter of policy they want to ensure the software they are working with cannot be used to discriminate as well. During the development of the project,

The test automation framework (TAF) used by the project may be based on a standard structure used by the organization, which would make the TAF derived from an OPA, and it could be configured and updated to enforce the anti-discrimination policy to ensure testing is conducted objectively. The way in which this scenario is handled in the project could be affected by the coordination required with the relevant legal personnel, data privacy and IT security specialists, as well as corporate compliance teams. The coordination required reflects the Organizational Systems that will affect the project management approach.

Enterprise Environmental Factors: A closer look


EEFs that are internal to the organization include policies, rules, and other forms of compliance required that will directly influence how the project can be managed. The example above included policies on anti-discrimination, information security, and testing strategy.


Those that are external include contracts, laws, regulations, and other items not within the organization’s control. In the case of a contract, while portions of the way the contract work is internal in nature, the other portion of control belongs to an external party which can influence how the project works. For example, the organization’s contract with a vendor to secure licenses to use the project management software might change in price next year, and because the contract does not contain a way of avoiding this, the project is influenced by this external EEF, and it will need to account for this price change in the Cost Management.

Organizational Process Assets: A closer look

Details on the processes, policies, and procedures used by the organization are assets which allow the project teams to work in a certain manner. There may also be details on past project historical information, change control procedures, analytics data, testing strategies, and useful reports.

Organizational process assets have varying relevance depending what is being done in the project. Image by Raihan Islam.

These details may be stored in one or more organizational knowledge repositories. Some organizations have a “knowledge base” or KB that documents all of these various materials for reference by the project team. This includes project records, closure information, task management information, and various other records.

EEFs and OPAs both have processes and policies?

The difference between an EEF and an OPA in this context is that we use the information on the processes, policies, etc. as organizational process assets to benefit our work. The fact that there are processes or policies may be an internal enterprise environmental factor the project needs to account for, and they do so in assistance with the relevant organizational process assets such as the organization’s compliance guide.

How do I take all of these EEFs and OPAs into account when managing a project within an organization? I recommend Getting Deep About Organizational Systems.

The 49 Project Management Processes within 5 Domains

According to a loose estimate generated in 2011, there are more than 16.5 million project managers in the whole world. I am not sure what estimates are reliable in 2020, but access to education and the demand for managers to organize activities to perform has increased especially thanks to remote working opportunities and the increased adoption of project management by numerous sectors, with the Project Management Institute (PMI) suggesting that by 2027, over 85 million individuals will be needed in roles related to project management. What technological unemployment?

The PMI’s PMBOK® Guide (Sixth Edition) and the PMP® Exam (until the new one launches on January 2, 2021) covers five domains (process groups) within project management covering the following details:

  • Initiating (~26 Questions, 13% of the Exam, 2 Processes, 8 Tasks)
    • Perform Project Assessment
    • Identify Key Deliverables
    • Perform Stakeholder Analysis
    • Identify High Level Risks, Assumptions, and Constraints
    • Participate in Development of Project Charter
    • Obtain Project Charter Approval
    • Inform Stakeholders of Project Charter Approval
  • Planning (~48 Questions, 24% of the Exam, 24 Processes, 13 Tasks)
    • Assess Detailed Project Requirements, Constraints, Assumptions with Stakeholders
    • Develop Scope Management Plan
    • Develop Cost Management Plan
    • Develop Project Schedule
    • Develop Resource Management Plan
    • Develop Communications Management Plan
    • Develop Procurement Management Plan
    • Develop Quality Management Plan
    • Develop Change Management Plan
    • Develop Risk Management Plan
    • Present Project Management Plan to Stakeholders
    • Conduct Project Kick-Off Meeting
    • Develop Stakeholder Management Plan
  • Execution (~62 Questions, 31% of the Exam, 10 Processes, 7 Tasks)
    • Acquire and Manage Project Resources
    • Manage Task Execution
    • Implement Quality Management Plan
    • Implement Approved Changes
    • Implement Approved Actions for Risk Management
    • Manage Communications
    • Maintain Stakeholder Relationships
  • Monitoring & Controlling (~50 Questions, 25% of the Exam, 12 Processes, 7 Tasks)
    • Measure Project Performance (EV, etc.)
    • Manage Changes
    • Verify Project Deliverables Quality
    • Monitor and Assess Risk
    • Review Issue Log
    • Capture and Analyze Lessons Learned
    • Monitor Procurement Activities
  • Closing (~14 Questions, 7% of the Exam, 1 Process, 7 Tasks)
    • Obtain Final Acceptance
    • Transfer Deliverable Ownership
    • Obtain Financial, Legal, and Administrative Closure
    • Prepare and Share Final Project Report
    • Collate Lessons Learned
    • Archive Project Documentation
    • Obtain Stakeholder Feedback
Simple model of the project management life cycle incorporating the five domains accounting for a possible agile delivery model. Image by Raihan Islam.

What does project management have to do with technological unemployment?

In the context of software or hardware that automates the execution of any pre-defined steps, a human is no longer needed to execute those steps, but the system and its maintenance very well might be should be managed. It is important to make sure that technology does precisely what it was intended to do when it was designed in the first place. A project manager in the case of already launched technology could be involved in observation of certain defects or risks that might arise while the system is in use, and fixes for those defects or improvements to address risks are then planned for execution by an engineering team. A project manager involved in building that technology for the first time would have to deliver results guaranteeing a more automated outcome. As I wrote earlier, there are plenty of structural adjustments that can and should be made to sustain the economy. Project managers will be critical in delivering those adjustments.

Managers of technology projects will appreciate the body of knowledge covered in the PMBOK® because it provides a framework for understanding how to start up, plan, and get things done. I do not suggest the PMI is the only brand in project management, nor do I suggest they have ownership over the legitimacy of any project management initiative. I will say though that the associated body of knowledge is not only a great framework but also one that has been used and replicated throughout project management, so the jargon may well be familiar with those in project management regardless of their certifications.

What are all of those tasks?

Besides for Initiating and Closing, there are fewer Tasks than Processes covered in each Domain.

The tasks represent “the general things you do” to achieve what is expected of a project manager for each domain.

What is the difference between a process and a task?

There are three types of processes according to the book, and they are ones that are:

  • Used once or at predefined points,
  • Performed periodically, or
  • Performed continuously

Tasks are things that need to be done that in the case of Initiating or Closing might all fit within one or two processes. In Planning, there are 24 Processes and 13 Tasks. When conducting those 13 tasks, doing so successfully requires accounting for those 24 processes.

A task is just one of the important things a project manager does in their role, and a process is the repeatable approach as to how part of a task, a whole task, or even multiple tasks might be performed within a single domain.

49 Processes? How does that work?

The 49 Processes are organized both by Domain and by Knowledge Area.

I am not going to pretend to be the expert with all of the answers, but I am the expert that knows where to look for the answers. Through diligent searching online, I have found some pretty useful guides. Firstly, the PMBOK® itself (the source), this great Udemy course (which applies breadth and depth in understanding what the exam covers), this helpful set of YouTube videos (which articulates the thought process behind answering questions quite well), and this amazing processes flow diagram (which shows the processes organized spatially by domain and color-coded by knowledge area).

The 49 Processes are organized by 10 Knowledge Areas as follows:

  1. Project Integration Management
    1. Develop Project Charter
    2. Develop Project Management Plan
    3. Direct and Manage Project Work
    4. Manage Project Knowledge
    5. Monitor and Control Project Work
    6. Perform Integrated Change Control
    7. Close Project or Phase
  2. Project Scope Management
    1. Plan Scope Management
    2. Collect Requirements
    3. Define Scope
    4. Create WBS
    5. Validate Scope
    6. Control Scope
  3. Project Schedule Management
    1. Plan Schedule Management
    2. Define Activities
    3. Sequence Activities
    4. Estimate Activity Durations
    5. Develop Schedule
    6. Control Schedule
  4. Project Cost Management
    1. Plan Cost Management
    2. Estimate Costs
    3. Determine Budget
    4. Control Costs
  5. Project Quality Management
    1. Plan Quality Management
    2. Manage Quality
    3. Control Quality
  6. Project Resource Management
    1. Plan Resource Management
    2. Estimate Activity Resources
    3. Acquire Resources
    4. Develop Team
    5. Manage Team
    6. Control Resources
  7. Project Communications Management
    1. Plan Communications Management
    2. Manage Communications
    3. Monitor Communications
  8. Project Risk Management
    1. Plan Risk Management
    2. Identify Risks
    3. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
    4. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
    5. Plan Risk Responses
    6. Implement Risk Responses
    7. Monitor Risks
  9. Project Procurement Management
    1. Plan Procurement Management
    2. Conduct Procurements
    3. Control Procurements
  10. Project Stakeholder Management
    1. Identify Stakeholders
    2. Plan Stakeholder Engagement
    3. Manage Stakeholder Engagement
    4. Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

How does one absorb all of this?

It certainly requires dedication and hard work, but it also requires smart work.

By combining multiple resources discussing the consensus that is the body of knowledge and how it was intended to be used in practice, I can be more confident that whether I take the exam or apply the knowledge in practice that it is based on the industry standard.

In the series of blogs I will be writing on this topic, I will cover in more detail the domains (process groups), the tasks, the knowledge areas, and the processes, and I will do that in many different ways.

In some cases, I will reference other posts I have written because of their relationship to the material – “Project Cost Management” would cover situations when considering whether the project contract should be agreed on a fixed-price, time & materials (T&M), or other pricing basis.

When I mentor students on new concepts, I do so through “boxing”. I position six sides and close them in on the meaning I aim to convey (yes, I meant that literally).


There are five domains that form the project management life cycle, and in those domains there are tasks that should be performed by the project manager.

Those tasks are accomplished through the use of processes, and each process is specific to a domain, which means it happens during a certain part of the project management life cycle.

Each process is also tied to a certain knowledge area, which is related to a discipline of sorts – such as scope, schedule, budget, and more – and there are several processes within a knowledge area that exist across the five domains.

It will not all make sense right away, but by using the right resources and understanding more contexts that influence project management, it will get simpler.

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